Spending a lot of time to determine wear resistance of materials is counterproductive to business, but that was how it used to be. Thanks to machine testers like the Taber Abrasion Tester, we can now get data and results within a few minutes of testing.
Here’s some basic information to know about this test technique.
What Is Taber Abrasion Test?
Taber abrasion testing specifically refers to the test that measures material wear due to sliding contact. Examples of this type of contact are scraping, grinding and rubbing. The test is also called wear testing or abrasion resistance test, and it is particularly used in fields such as geology, engineering and metallurgy.
In these technical fields, it is important to determine the durability of materials used in production and applications. With wear testing, the manufacturer can also test the level of hazard a material can cause in the environment as it erodes.
In general, there are three types of abrasion test. We have flat abrasion testing, where material erosion is caused by surface rubbing. Next, we have edge abrasion test, where the material is tested on its edges, one that is specifically important for the textile industry. Last, we also have flex abrasion, where the test is performed to determine the change in material after folding, flexing or bending.
There are several machines that you can use for the test. To name a few, we have WIRA abrasion testers, LIRA abrasion testers, and the Taber abrasion machine.
Knowing the most suitable test method in your applications can help you in determining the right machine to use.
For this particular blog post, we are interested in knowing important details about the Taber tester.
What Is Taber Abrasion Tester?
Typically, Taber testing is used to measure wear rate and mass loss of materials. A certified system complies with one of the following industry standards: ASTM D1044, ASTM D3884, ASTM D4060, DIN 53754, DIN 53799, DIN 53109, DIN 52347, and ISO-5470.
As such, the test can be carried out for different purposes, including:
- Determining if your company complies with production quality standards
- Enhancing your product’s competitiveness against another product
- Assessing materials’ functionality, durability and appropriateness for the intended products that they will be used
- Reducing the risk of failure and related warranty costs
- Optimizing limited resources
- Useful also for research and development and for conducting third-party evaluations.
The test consists of a disk-shaped specimen placed under abrading wheels. A predetermined force is applied and the specimen is made to continuously rotate while in contact with the abrading wheels until the desired number of turns is achieved.
During the rotations, a rub-wear action takes place between the specimen and the abrading wheels. The vacuum system of the machine also operates with the abrasion process, the purpose of which is to remove loose debris.
The Taber Abrasion Test equipment is easy to operate and also a very versatile machine. It comes with different loads of abrading wheels, making it a smart choice for industries that need to test several types of specimens prior to production.
With abrasion testing, one can get data for round and flat specimens, such as painted surfaces, coated surfaces, and materials such as plastic and fabric.
The size of the flat specimen to be tested for weight difference and mass loss should not exceed 108 mm. The specimen thickness that can be accommodated is between 6.35 to 40 mm. The material is mounted and the wheels are lowered to make contact with the material at a certain pressure force.
After the actual abrasing process, there will appear an X pattern of abrasion on the material, allowing accurate identification of wear and tear. The machine comes with a full range of specimen holders, auxiliary weights, wheel refacer, and vacuum unit.
The dual abrading arms can be operated separately, with each arm able to apply a minimum weight of 250 grams against the specimen, excluding the weight of the wheel.
An auxiliary weight is if there is a need to increase the load to either 500 grams or 1000 grams. Increasing the load to be put against the specimen is as easy as mounting auxiliary weights at the sides of the machine.
Note that the numbers written on the auxiliary weight don’t represent the actual weight of these loads. Those numbers are sums of both the weight of the load and the weight of the machine’s arms. For instance, for the weight that is marked 500 grams, the actual weight of the load is only 250 grams and for the one that’s marked 1000 grams, the actual weight is only 750 grams.
For Taber testing, there are two options for turntable rotating speed – 60 rpm and 72 rpm (revolution per minute) – and power supply options of 110 and 220 volts at 50Hz.
The Taber machine also features an LCD touch-screen interface with automatic shutdown options of 0 – 999,999. It also has selectable screen options that include selections for language.
An essential part of the machine is its vacuum system. On the control panel, there is a key that allows vacuum suction adjustments for test controls. There is also the key for “vacuum only” operation, which enables users to run the machine only in the vacuum mode. Such mode is very useful for cleaning the specimen or the drive shaft.
With the Taber testing machine, you can employ strict controls for highly-reliable results. It allows for careful selection of the abrading quality of wheels and its consistency. Strict documentation of the load in grams placed on the wheels can also be implemented.
In addition, the machine also offers electronic counting of revolutions and removal of abraded particles for ensuring that results are consistent and reliable.
All these qualities of the machine ensure manufacturing of products that are free of flaws. Further, since the Taber machine provides fast testing of materials, using it translates to low-cost testing operations.
Test Results Evaluation
The results of a test can be evaluated using 4 different methods, in accordance to manufacturer instructions. These are:
- Visual endpoint
- Weight loss
- Volume loss
- Depth of wear
Some materials, such as paper, can be evaluated at a point where they undergo a marked physical change. The number of test cycles here is considered as the wear index. Other materials that are best evaluated this way are fabric, textile, and polished surfaces.
This is simply a matter of subtraction, where the weight of the material is subtracted from the weight prior to the test. The test involves density comparison, meaning that two materials with the same density are compared in terms of wear after application of a similar test under the same set of conditions. The wear index for this test is measured in milligrams of weight that was lost per one thousand cycles.
For materials with different densities, the perfect test to use is volume loss test. After the difference in weigh is calculated, the Taber tester will provide the loss in volume as well.
Depth of wear
Using results from any of the above methods of test, the user may need to determine the depth of the wear caused to the material in the test. With this one, you will have to use an optical micrometer and calibrate to the desired unit of measurement.
Because there are many types of materials we test in the lab, and there are many different variations in loads and revolutions, there are no typical results to be expected. Steel, for example, registers loss of weight in the range of 30 to 60 mg under a test load of 1000 grams for 1000 revolutions.
Whatever test is used, one needs to also take into account environment conditions, such as temperature and humidity. Materials are sensitive to these conditions; thus, specimens need to be conditioned before testing, and surrounding conditions need to be controlled prior to the test.
These prerequisites should be satisfied, so comparing results between different specimens under similar conditions can be done.
Types of Materials Used in Taber Test
The Taber instrument has the ability to test both rigid and flexible materials. Since it has this particular ability, the machine has been widely used in a wide spectrum of materials. These materials include:
- Anodized aluminum
- High pressure laminate
- Deck and floor coverings
- Car carpet
- Porcelain enamel
- Digital media
- Paints and varnishes
- Plastics and paper (ID, safety gloves, credit cards, etc.)
- Synthetic turf
- Textile fabric
- Vinyl, and more.
If you are not sure if Taber testing is right for your specimens to be tested, we can help. We are a distributor of the Taber machine and you can coordinate with us for a material evaluation for free.
Taber Abrasion Tester Effectiveness – An Actual Test
Taber Abrasion Tester according to ASTM D4060 was used in testing an organic coating material. Many mechanical parts require that materials used in their production be tested for impact resistance, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. These materials provide a wear-resistance coating on the surface of mechanical parts.
We give you the details of the test that involves three steps – preparation of sample, sample test, and assessment report.
The specimen is a round plate that has a hole in the center. The hole’s diameter is 6.5 mm and the thickness of the specimen is recorded to be less than 6.3 mm.
The coating plate is preconditioned 24 hours before the testing under a temperature of around 23 degrees Celsius and a relative humidity of 50%.
Under this step, wear index, weight loss and wear cycles per mil are computed.
In the case of wear index, the formula used is I = (A – B) 1000 / C, where A is the weight of the specimen before testing, B is the weight after testing, and C is the number of cycles recorded.
For weight loss, the formula used is simply A-B, coinciding with the same representations for A and B above.
Finally, the wear for cycles per mil is also computed using the formula W = D / T, where D represents the number of cycles of abrasion required to wear coating and T is the thickness of coating reported in the mil unit. One mil is equivalent to 0.001 inches or 0.00254 cm.
The Taber equipment provided several results for the test and for assessment of wear under ASTM D4060. These include:
- Temp and RH both in the conditioning phase and actual test
- Coating thickness (wear cycles are also specified)
- Abrasive wheels used
- Load applied
- Wear index, weight loss and wear cycles per mill
When results are to be stated in a material specification or in making provisions in a contract, it is also required to state if the material under testing fails or passes a standard. This standard may include gloss loss, coating loss, color loss, pilling condition, and other changes in appearance.
Note: The ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials) is an international standards organization that provides technical standards for a wide range of systems, materials, and services.
The original purpose of the organization when it was established was to address and prevent frequent rail breaks that plagued the industry. They developed and published standards that companies follow to ensure producing only high-quality rail products.
Repeatability Tips for Taber Abrasion Tester
To ensure repeatability for reliable tests using this machine, here is a few things you can do:
- Reface wheels before testing
- Check the wheels’ surface after long periods of testing
- Adjust the nozzles of the vacuum every time a new specimen is to be tested
Taber Abrasion Tester for sale
If you are asking for the Taber Abrasion Tester price and other details about the machine, just contact a reliable supplier. Check out those suppliers known for offering these machines at the best prices.
You may have other needs as well, so make sure that they can also provide you quick and efficient solutions in other areas of production, such as rock and soil mechanics, rubber testing, plastic testing, and metal testing.
Choose a company that has lots of experience in the industrial and technical fields, so that that you can be specifically guided on the best equipment to use for your lab. A good company should care a lot for your operations and product quality, and also offers aftersales technical support and extended warranty for their products.